广东11选5

合成塑料的歷史,現狀及發展

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合成塑料的歷史,現狀及發展

發布日期:2017-12-12 作者: 點擊:

摘要:介紹了合成塑料的歷史及現狀,探討了白色污染的產生原因與防治方法。并簡單介紹了可降解塑料的原理,對其未來進行了展望。   


SULIAOZUOWEISANDAHECHENGCAILIAOZHISHOU,ZAIJIDAIKEXUEJIADENULIXIA,SULIAOYIJINGCHENGWEIYIGEZHONGLEIFANDUO,YINGYONGGUANGFANDECAILIAO。DAZHIHANGTIANFEIJI,XIAOZHISHUIHUCHABEI,DOUYOUSULIAODESHENYING。GUANYUSULIAO,YOUXUDUODEZHENGYI,TAJIJIDADIGAISHANLEWOMENDESHENGHUO,QUEYEDAILAIBAISEWURANDENGHUANJINGWENTI。BENWENJIANGTANTAOHECHENGSULIAODELISHI,XIANZHUANGJIWEILAIFAZHAN,XUNQIUYIGEHUANJINGYOUHAODEFAZHANDAOLU,SHISULIAONENGGENGHAODIWEIRENMENFUWU。   

   

1, 塑料的化學特性  塑料又稱合成樹脂,是單體通過加聚或縮聚反應聚合而成的高分子化合物,因為可以改變成分及形體樣式,具有可塑性而得名。主要成分有合成樹脂及填料、增塑劑、穩定劑、潤滑劑、色料等添加劑。基本分子結構有兩種,線性結構及體型結構,前者加熱熔融,具有熱塑性,后者硬度高,延展性差。 

HUAXUETEXINGSHANG,SULIAOKANGFUSHINENGLIQIANG,BUYUSUAN、JIANFANYING。FANGSHUI、ZHIQING。RONGYIBEISUZHICHENGBUTONGXINGZHUANG。SHILIANGHAODEJUEYUANTI。BUYIJIANGJIE,RANSHAOSHISHIFANGJIABENDENGYOUDUQITI。    


2, SULIAODEFAZHANLISHI  SULIAOSHIZAI19SHIJIMOXIANDAIGONGYEPENGBOFAZHANDEBEIJINGXIAYINGYUNERSHENGDE。BISHI,YOUJIHUAXUEFANGXINGWEIAI,XINDELILUNBUDUANBEITICHU,SHUYIWANJIDEXINCHANPINZAISHIYANSHIZHONGBEIYANZHI,ZOUXIANGSHICHANG。QIEMEITANGONGYEHESHIYOUGONGYEDEFAZHANJIDACUJINLEXIANGGUANHUAXUELINGYUDEYANJIU。  18SHIJI50NIANDAI,ZUIZAODESULIAO“PAKEXIN”HEZUIZAODEYIPISULIAOZHIPINWENSHI,DANXIANYUJISHU,WEINENGDAGUIMOTOURUSHIYONG。1868NIAN,HAIYATEBAOZHUXUNZHAOXIANGYATAIQIUTIDAIPINDEMUDE,GAIJINLE“PAKEXIN”DEZHIZAOGONGXU,CHUANGZAOCHULE“SAILULUO”,ZHEZHONGSULIAODEDAOLEYIDINGDEYINGYONG,DANYOUYUYIZHUHUODENGQUEXIAN,SHIYONGFANWEIYOUXIAN。  20SHIJICHU,YIZHONGNENGNAIGAOWENDEHECHENGSULIAO—FENQUANSULIAOHENGKONGCHUSHI,PINGJIEZHUJUEYUANXINGHAO,NAIGAOWEN,YINGDUDADENGYOULIANGTEXING,QIZAIDIANQIXINGYEDEDAOGUANGFANYINGYONG。BEIKELANDEYEBEICHENGWEI“SULIAOZHIFU”。CIHOU,NIAOQUANSULIAO,BENAN-JIAQUANSULIAO,SANJUQINGAN-JIAQUANSHUZHIXIANGJIDANSHENG,SHANGSHUSANZHONGDOUSHIANJISULIAO, 

JIANYING、NAIGUAHEN、BANTOUMING,SUCHENG“DIANYU”。“DIANMU”“DIANYU”YOUYIGEGONGTONGDETEDIAN,REGUXING,JIYICICHENGXING,BUNENGFANFUSUZAO。SUIRANJIAGEBIANYI,DANQIBUNENGXUNHUANSHIYONG,DUIHUANJINGZAOCHENGLEYIDINGFUMIANZUOYONG。 

LIANGCISHIJIEDAZHANSHIQI,DEYIYUZHANZHENGTUIDONG,MEITANGONGYEYUSHIYOUGONGYEFEISUFAZHAN,DUISULIAODENGCAILIAOXUQIUJIJUSHANGSHENG。SULIAOGONGYEYINGLAILEFAZHANGAOFENGQI,XIANJINZUICHANGYONGDE 60 YUZHONGSULIAOZHONGYOUJIANGJIN 20GEPINZHONGZAINEIQIJIANGONGYEHUA[1],JIUZAICIQIJIAN,RESUXINGSULIAODAFANGYICAI。PINGJIEQIROURUANZHIQINGDETEDIAN,ZHEZHONGSULIAOSHIBAOZHUANGCAILIAO,JIANGLUOSAN,ZHANGPENGDENGDEJUEJIACAILIAO。QIZHONGDUBANGHUAGONGDE“NILONG66”ZUIWEIZHUMING。 

JINGGUOKEXUEJIABAIYUNIANDENULI,SULIAORUJINZAOYISHENTOUDAOWOMENSHENGHUOZHONGDEFANGFANGMIANMIAN,YISHIZHUXINGKEYISHUOYANGYANGLIBUKAISULIAO。ZAOZAI1979NIAN,SULIAOCHANLIANGBIANCHAOGUOLEGONGYESHIDAIDEDAIBIAO—GANG。DANSHI,SUIZHUSULIAODEDALIANGSHIYONG,QIDAILAIDEWENTIYEZHUJIANXIANXIAN,RUHEZAIHUANBAOQIANTIXIAHELILIYONGSULIAO,CHENGWEIYIGEYANJUNDEKETI。 

 

广东11选53, SULIAOHUAGONGDEXIANZHUANG 

2011NIANSHIJIESULIAOZONGCHANLIANGDADAOLE2.8YIDUN,QIZHONGZHONGGUOSULIAOCHANLIANGDADAO0.64 YIDUN。

广东11选5CONGZHONGKEYIFENXIDECHU,BOMOLEICHANLIANGZUIGAO,ZHANBIYEZUIDADADAOLIUFENZHIYIZHIDUO,CILEISULIAOJIBENWEIJUYIXIJIJULVYIXI,GUANGFANYONGYUNONGYONGDAPENG,BAOZHUANGCAILIAODENG。RIYONGPIN,PIGEDENGYEZHANJULEBIJIAODADEBILI。ERCHANGWEIRENMENSUOGOUBINGDEYICIXINGFAPAOCANJU,QISUOSHUDEFAPAOZHIPINJINZHANZONGCHANLIANGDE3%,SUOYIYAOJIEJUEMUQIANDEBAISEWURAN,BUJINJINYINGGAICONGCANJUSHANGZUOQI。 

广东11选5CONGCHANYESHANGJINXINGFENXI,ZAINONGYESHANG,WOGUONONGYONGSULIAOYINGYONGJISHUZHUYAOBAOKUODIMOFUGAIZAIPEI、SHESHIYUANYI、RONGQIYUMIAO、JIESHUIGUANGAI、SICAOBAOMOQINGZHUANHUA、CHUQINNUANQUAN、SHESHISHUICHANYANGZHI、WANGJUBULAOHEYANGZHI、NONGCHANPINBAOZHUANGZHUZANGBAOXIANDENG。ERQIEZUOYONGFEICHANGMINGXIAN。CAIYONGDIMOFUGAIZAIPEI,YIBANKESHINONGZUOWUZENGCHAN 30%~50%,CAIYONGYUANYISHESHISHENGCHANSHUCAIGUAGUO,667PINGFANGMIPINGJUNZENGCHAN 1.8DUN,ZENGSHOU 6 00DUOYUAN,ZUIGAOKEDA 2 WANDUOYUAN。BEIFANGBANPENGSHISULIAONUANQUANYONGYUYANGDANJI,CHANDANLVKETIGAO 10%ZUOYOU;YONGYUYANGROUZHU、ROUNIU,DONGJIRIZENGZHILIANGKEDA 250~500KE ;YONGYUYANGGAOYANG,YUEDONGCHENGHUOLVKEDA 90% YISHANG。[3]QIESUIZHUWOGUONONGYECHANYEHUABUDUANTUIJIN,DAPISHUCAIGUAGUOXUYAOBAOZHUANGYUNSHU,SULIAOZHIPINRENGYOUZHUGUANGKUOFAZHANQIANLI。 

广东11选5ZAIGONGYESHANG,SULIAOZHIQINGJIANGU,NAISUANNAIJIAN,BUYIFUSHI,JUEYUANXINGHAOERQIEZAOJIADILIAN,BEIGUANGFANYONGYUGELEIGONGYEZHIPINDELINGBUJIANZHONG,RUQICHEZHONGDEBAOXIANGANG,RANYOUXIANG。DIANQIXINGYEZHONGBEIYONGYUYINSHUADIANLUBAN,DIANXIANBAOGUODENG。QIZHONGQIDAGONGCHENGSULIAOSHIYONGJIAOWEIGUANGFAN。ZAISHENGHUOZHONG,SULIAOGENGSHIWUCHUBUZAI。BAOZHUANGCAILIAO,YIWU,JIAZHONGGUANDAOXITONGDOUSHIYONGLESULIAOCAILIAO。  

合成樹脂

4, BAISEWURANDECHANSHENGJIYINGDUI 

广东11选5SULIAOJUYOUNAIFUSHI,SHIYONGNIANXIANCHANGDENGYOUDIAN。DANDANGSULIAOZHIPINBEIFEIQISHI,TADEZHEXIETEDIANZUAILESULIAOZHONGXINJINRUSHENGWUQUANCANYUWUZHIXUNHUAN,YOUCICHANSHENGLE“BAISEWURAN”。 

广东11选5BAISEWURANDEZHUYAOLAIYUANYOUSHIPINBAOZHUANG、PAOMOSULIAOTIANCHONGBAOZHUANG、KUAICANHE、NONGYONGDIMO。ZAOCHENGDEWEIHAIZHUYAOFENWEI“SHIJUEWURAN”HE“QIANZAIWEIHAI”。[4]SHIJUEWURANSHANG,SULIAOZHIPINBEISUIYIRENGQIYINGXIANGSHIRONGSHIMAO。QIANZAIWEIHAISHANG,YOUYUQINANYIJIANGJIE,WULUNZAITURANGZHONGHUANSHIZAISHUITIZHONG,DOUDUIHUANJINGZAICHENGYIDINGWEIHAI,RUBEIDONGWUWUSHIZAOCHENGSIWANG,YINGXIANGZHIWUYANGFENXISHOUDENG。QIEZAICHULISULIAOZHIPINSHANG,FENSHAOZAOCHENGKONGQIWURAN,TIANMAIZAOCHENGTUDILANGFEI,JIEJUEBAISEWURANCHENGWEIYIGEYANJUNDEKETI。 

JUGUOJIAHUANJINGBAOHUBUTONGJI,2011NIAN,WOGUOJINYICIXINGSULIAOFANHEJIGEZHONGPAOMOBAOZHUANGJIUGAODA9 500WANt,BAOFEIJIADIAN、QICHEFEIJIUSULIAO6 500WANt,ZAIJIASHANGQITAFEIQISULIAO,ZONGLIANGYIJIN2YIt,ERHUISHOUZONGLIANGJINWEI1 500WANt,HUISHOULVBUJI10%。ZHESHUOMINGWOGUORUJINFEIJIUSULIAOWURANDEYANZHONG,YESHUOMINGQILIYONGDEGUANGKUOQIANLI。 

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广东11选5JINGGUODUONIANFAZHAN,XUDUOZHONGLEIDESULIAOYIJINGXINGCHENGYIGELIANGHAODEXUNHUANHUISHOUCHANYELIAN。RUNONGYONGSULIAODAPENGMO,SULIAOBIANZHIDAI、YINLIAOPINGDENG。ZHELEICHANPINZHUYAOMIANLINWENTISHISHEBEIJISHULUOHOU,HUISHOUCHANWUPINZHIJIAOCHA。XIANGBIYUYIJINGBURULIANGXINGXUNHUANDESHANGSHUCHANPIN,MOUXIESULIAOZHIPINYOUYUJINGJIYUANYINZANSHIWUFAJINXINGHUISHOU,BIRUDIANSHIJI,DIANNAOWAIKE,CILEISULIAOJINGGONGHUNGAIXING,HUOYOUBUTONGCAILIAOFUHE,CHANGGUIDEQINGXI,FENSUI,ZAOLIBINGBUNENGJIANGQIHUISHOUZAISHENG。JISHIJISHUSHANGNENGGOUSHIXIAN,JINGJICHENGBENYEJIANGSHIFENJUDA。 

ZONGDELAISHUO,JIEJUEBAISEWURANYOUDUOZHONGTUJING。CONGZHIZAOCENGMIANLAISHUO,KEYISHIYONGKEJIANGJIECAILIAOHUOZHESHIYONGJINSHUHUOZHIZHICAILIAOTIDAI。CONGSHIYONGCENGMIANSHANGSHUO,KEYIGULIMINZHONGZHONGFUJIEYUESHIYONGSULIAOZHIPIN,JIANSHAOSULIAOLAJIDECHANSHENG。CONGHOUQICHULISHANGSHUO,FAZHANFENLEIHUISHOUJIXUNHUANLIYONGJISHU。QIZHONG,YANZHIKAIFAKEJIANGJIESULIAOBEIRENWEISHIJIEJUEBAISEWURANDEZUIJIADUICE。


塑料的主要成分是合成樹脂。樹脂這一名詞最初是由動植物分泌出的脂質而得名,如松香、蟲膠等,目前樹脂是指尚未和各種添加劑混合的高聚物。樹脂約占塑料總重量的40%~100%。塑料的基本性能主要決定于樹脂的本性,但添加劑也起著重要作用。有些塑料基本上是由合成樹脂所組成,不含或少含添加劑,如有機玻璃、聚苯乙烯等。所謂塑料,其實它是合成樹脂中的一種,形狀跟天然樹脂中的松樹脂相似,但因又經過化學的力量來合成,而被稱之為塑料。

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相關標簽:合成塑料

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